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Notes from Holt Physics, 2006
Ch 1 The Science of Physics Ch 2 Motion in 1 Dimension Ch 3 2d Motion &  Vectors Ch 4 Forces & Motion
Ch 5 Work & Energy Ch 6 Momentum Ch 7 Circular Motion & Gravitation
Ch 11 Vibrations & Waves Ch 12 Sound Ch 13 Light & Reflection Ch 14 Refraction
Ch 15 Interference & Diffraction Ch 16 Electric Forces & Fields Ch 17 Electrical Energy & Current Ch 18 Circuits
Ch 19 Magnetism Projects1  Projects2 SAT & PSSA Grading Guidelines Running Grades
Notes from Merrill Physics, 1995
Intro Ch 4 Acceleration Ch 10 Work, Power & Machines Ch 16 Light
Graphing Ch 5 Forces Ch 11 Energy Ch 20-23 Electricity
Factor Label Ch 6 Vectors Ch 12 Heat Ch 24-26 Magnitism
Experimental Design Ch 7 Motion in 2 Dimens. Ch 13 States of Matter Imaging
Measuring Ch 8 Gravity Ch 14 Waves & 
Ch 15 Sound
Ch 3 Velocity Ch 9 Momentum

Girls' High Physics Scope & Sequence and PA Standards

Jan 31, 2003
Based on Merrill Physics, 1995

Missing Standards:  3.3.10D & 3.3.12D

Merrill Physics:  http://www.glencoe.com/sec/science/physics/index2.php#

A Mathematical Tool Kit (Ch 2, none, weeks 1-3)
2.1: Metric System, Scientific Notation,
2.2: Uncertainty, Parallax, Accuracy & Precision, Significant Digits,
2.3: Graphing Linear, Quadratic, & Inverse Relationships
2.4: Manipulating Equations, Units in equations

Describing Motion: Velocity (Ch 3, Ch 1, weeks 4-6)      3.3.12C
3.1: Position & Distance--Reference Point, Frame of Reference,
      Vectors & Scalars, Average Velocity, Instantaneous Position,
      Displacement, Position-Time Graphs
3.2: Positive & Negative Velocities, Speed, Instantaneous Velocity,
      Velocity-Time Graphs, Relativity of Velocity

Acceleration (Ch 4, Ch 2, weeks 7-9)      3.3.12C
4.1: Instantaneous & Average Acceleration,
      Positive, Negative & Zero Acceleration, Velocity-Time Graphs
4.2: Displacement During Constant Acceleration--Equations for Motion
      with Uniform Acceleration, Acceleration due to gravity

2nd Quarter (9 Weeks)

Forces (Ch 5, Ch 5, weeks 10-11)        3.3.10C & 3.3.12C
5.1: Types of Forces, Newton's Laws of Motion
5.2: Mass & Weight, Inertial Mass, Static & Sliding Friction,
      Net Force, Terminal Velocity

Vectors (Ch 6, Ch 3, weeks 12-12)
6.1: Graphical Vector Addition One Dimension, Two Dimensions,
      Several Vectors, Independence of Vectors, (Vector Subtraction)
6.2: Analytical Vector Addition--Component Resolution.
6.3: Applications: Equilibrium, Inclined Planes

Motion in Two Dimensions (Ch 7, Ch 3, 4 & 5, weeks 14-15) 3.3.12C & 3.3.10C
7.1: Projectiles, Trajectory, Horizontal Launches, Angle Launches
7.2: Periodic Motion--Circular Motion, Torque,
      Simple Harmonic Motion--Period, Amplitude, Pendulum, Mass+Spring

Universal Gravity (Ch 8, Ch 4, weeks 16-17)
8.1: Kepler's Laws, The Law of Gravity, Satellites, Cavendish Exp
8.2: Applications--Planetary Motion, Weightlessness
      Gravitational Field, Einstein's Theory of Gravity

Momentum (Ch 9, Ch 6, week 18)   
9.1: Impulse & Momentum Change, Angular Momentum      3.3.10B & 3.3.12C
9.2: Conservation of Momentum--3rd Law & Momentum, Collisions,
      Internal & External Forces, Conservation in 2 Dimensions

3rd Quarter (9 Weeks)

Work, Power, Energy (Ch 10, Ch7, weeks 19-20)      3.3.10C & 3.3.12C
10.1: Work & Force Direction, Power & Watt
10.2: Machines--Simple & Complex, Energy Conservation, Mechanical
       Advantage, Efficiency, Compound Machines, Human Walking Machine

Energy (Ch 11, Ch 7, weeks 21-22)
11.1: Work & Potential or Kinetic Energy Change
11.2: Energy Conservation--Systems, Collisions

Heat (Ch 12)      3.3.12B
12.1:  Temperature & Thermal Energy--kinetic theory, conduction, convection, radiation, equilibrium, temp scales, absolute zero, specific heat, calorimitry.
12.2:  Change of State & Thermodynamics--heat engine

Waves & Energy Transfer (Ch 14, weeks 23-24)      3.3.12C
14.1: Properties--Transverse, Longitudinal, Surface Waves,
      Pulse, Frequency, Wavelength, Velocity, Amplitude
14.2: Interference--Waves at boundaries, Superposition, Standing
      Waves, Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction & Interference.

Sound (Ch 15, Ch 11, week 25)
15.1: Properties--SONAR, Doppler Shift, Pitch & Loudness      3.3.10C
15.2: Music--Sources, Resonance, Detection,
      Quality--Timbre, Beat, Dissonance, Consonance, Fundamental, Harmonics
      Missing:  measure speed of sound, absorption, seismic

Light (Ch 16, Ch 13, weeks 26-27)      3.3.10C
16.1: Fundamentals--Ray Model (Transmission), Speed,
      Sources--Illumination, luminous flux, illuminance, Pinhole Camera
16.2: Light & Matter--Transparent, Translucent, Opaque, Color,
      Spectrum, 1o, 2o, & Complimentary Colors,
      1o, 2o, & Complimentary Pigments, Thin Films, Polarization
      Missing: Doppler effect, absorption

4th Quarter (9 Weeks)

Reflection & Refraction of Light (Ch 17, Ch 15, week 28)
17.1:  Light at a Boundary--Laws of Reflection & Refraction,
        Snell's Law, Refraction Index & Speed
17.2: Applications--Total Internal Reflection, Effects of Refraction,
        Critical Angle, Dispersion

Mirrors & Lenses (Ch 18, Ch 14 & 16, week 29)
18.1: Mirrors--Plane & Curved Mirrors, Real & Virtual Images, Chromatic Aberration, Instruments
18.2: Lenses--Concave & Convex Lenses, Real & Virtual Images, Chromatic Aberration, Instruments

Diffraction & Interference (Ch 19, week 30)
19.1:  Interference--Two Slit Pattern (Monochromatic, Coherent), Wavelength of Light, Single-Slit
19.2:  Applications--Wavelength (diffraction gratings), Resolving Power of Lenses

Static Electricity (Ch 20, week 31)
20.1: Charges--Microscopic View, Conductors & Insulators
20.2: Forces--Separation of Charge & Charging by Conduction &
      Induction, Coulombs Law, the Coulomb, Using Electric Forces

Electric Fields (Ch 21, week 31)     
21.1: Creating & Measuring--Picturing the Electric Field
21.2: Applications--Energy & Electric Potential, Millikan's Experiment
       Sharing Charge, Electric Fields Near Conductors, the Capacitor

Current Electricity (Ch 20, week 32)      3.3.10B
22.1: Current & Circuits--Producting Electric Current, Rates of Charge
      Flow & Energy Transfer, Ohm's Law, Diagrams (series & parallel)
22.1: Applications--Energy Transfer in Circuits, Transmission, KwattHr

Series & Parallel Circuits (Ch 23, week 33)
23.1: Simple Circuits--Voltage Drop, Current Flow & Resistance,
      Equivalent Resistance
23.2: Applications--Safety Devices, Combined series-Parallel Circuits,
      Ammeters & Voltmeters

Magnetic Fields (Ch 24, week 34)
24.1: Permanent & Temporary Magnets—Properties, Fields,
      Electromagnetism, Coils, Microscopic View
24.2: Forces Caused by Magnetic Fields—Forces on Currents in Magnetic
      Fields, Galvanometers, Motors, Force on a Single Charged
      Particle (Cathode Ray Tubes)

Electromagnetic Induction (Ch 25, week 35)
25.1: Creating Current--Faraday's Law, Electromotive Force,       3.3.10B
      Generators, A-C Generators
25.2: Induced EMF--Lenz's Law, Self-Inductance, Transformers.  

Imaging

Updated 5/26/03
Top

A VARIETY OF TECHNIQUES ARE AVAILABLE TO DETECT ALTERATIONS IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF DIFFERENT BODY TISSUES.  SUCH CHANGES MAY BE CAUSED BY TUMORS, TRAUMA, OR OTHER DISEASE PROCESSES IN THE HEART, LUNG, BRAIN, KIDNEY, BONES OR OTHER MAJOR ORGANS OF THE BODY.  IMAGING IS USED BY PHYSICIANS TO LOCATE TUMORS, OR DAMAGED TISSUES.  THIS IN TURN HELPS THEM DECIDE ON THE BEST COURSE OF TREATMENT--MEDICATION, SURGERY, RADIOTHERAPY, ETC.

X-RAY OR RADIOGRAPH

THE X-RAY TECHNIQUE IS THE BASIS FOR A NUMBER OF RADIOLOGICAL TESTS TO IMAGE BODY TISSUE.  X-RAYS, DISCOVERED BY ROENTGEN IN 1895, ARE PRODUCED BY BOMBARDING A TUNGSTEN TARGET WITH AN ELECTRON BEAM, THEREBY CREATING A SOURCE OF RADIANT ENERGY.  IF THE X-RAY BEAM IS AIMED AT A PARTICULAR AREA OF THE BODY, SOME OF THE ENERGY WILL BE ABSORBED AND SOME WILL PASS THROUGH.  A PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATE IS PLACED BEHIND THE PORTION OF THE BODY BEING IMAGED.  IT "CATCHES" THE ENERGY THAT IS NOT ABSORBED AND AN IMAGE IS FORMED WHICH IS A NEGATIVE OF THE BODY PART.  THIS IMAGE IS CALLED THE RADIOGRAPH OR X-RAY.  THE IMAGE IS A REFLECTION OF THE ELECTRON DENSITY OF THE TISSUE.  DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BODY ABSORB DIFFERENT PERCENTAGES OF THE ENERGY.  SO THE NEGATIVE WILL HAVE SHADES OF GRAY IN ADDITION TO BLACK AND WHITE. 

CUT-FILM ANGIOGRAPHY

ANGIOGRAPHY IS A SPECIAL TYPE OF X-RAY TEST USED TO EVALUATE THE VEINS AND ARTERIES.  ANGIOGRAPHY IS USED TO HELP PHYSICIANS FIND THE BEST WAY TO TREAT CLOGGED VEINS & ARTERIES IN THE BRAIN, HEART, KIDNEYS, LEGS, OR OTHER BODY PART.

DURING ANGIOGRAPHY A THIN FLEXIBLE TUBE OR CATHETER IS INSERTED INTO A VEIN OR ARTERY IN AN ARM OR A LEG.  THE CATHETER IS PUSHED TOWARD THE STRUCTURE BEING EVALUATED.  A FLUID CALLED A CONTRASTING MEDIUM IS THEN INJECTED.  THIS FLUID WILL ABSORB X-RAYS.  THEREFORE, WHEN A X-RAY BEAM IS THEN AIMED AT AN ORGAN THE BLOOD VESSELS WILL SHOW UP "BLACK" ON THE PHOTOGRAPH FILM AND A PICTURE OF THE BLOOD VESSELS IS MADE.

DIGITAL SUBTRACTION ANGIOGRAPHY

THIS IS SIMILAR TO CUT-FILM ANGIOGRAPHY BUT INSTEAD OF X-RAY FILM A COMPUTER IS USED TO AMPLIFY THE TRANSMITTED X-RAYS.  THE PATIENT IS EXPOSED TO THE X-RAYS WITHOUT USING A CONTRAST MEDIUM TO CREATE A BACKGROUND IMAGE.  THE A CONTRAST MEDIUM IS ADMINISTERED AND THE PATIENT IS EXPOSED TO X-RAYS TO CREATE AN ENHANCED IMAGE.  THE BACKGROUND IMAGE IS SUBTRACTED FROM THE ENHANCED IMAGE AND THE RESULT IS TRANSFERRED TO A TV MONITOR.

DSA USES LOWER LEVELS OF X-RAYS AND IS QUICKER THAN CUT-FILM BECAUSE NO FILM HAS TO BE DEVELOPED.  THIS METHOD IS RARELY USED BECAUSE THE IMAGES ARE NOT AS CLEAR AS WITH CUT-FILM, AND HEART IMAGES ARE DISTORTED BY BREATHING AND SWALLOWING.

MYELOGRAPHY

MYELOGRAPHY IS A SPECIAL X-RAY TECHNIQUE USED TO IMAGE THE SPINAL CORD.  MYELOGRAPHY IS CARRIED OUT BY INJECTING A CONTRAST FLUID INTO THE SPACE SURROUNDING THE SPINAL CORD AND X-RAYING IT.  THE SPINAL CORD WILL LET MOST OF THE X-RAY BEAM BEAM PASS THROUGH TO THE PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATE.  THE PICTURE PRODUCED IS AN OUTLINE OF THE SPINAL CORD.  THE DETAIL OBTAINED BY MYELOGRAPHY IS EXCELLENT AND CANNOT BE MATCHED BY CT OR MRI.

COMPUTED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY--CAT

A CAT IS A SPECIAL TYPE OF X-RAY PICTURE USING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TO ANALYZE THE RADIOGRAPH AND MAKE PICTURES THAT REPRESENT AXIAL SLICES OF THE BODY TISSUE IMAGED.  IN CAT, A THIN BEAM OF X-RAYS IS AIMED AT THE BODY AND THOSE THAT GET THROUGH ARE RECORDED BY SENSING DEVICES.  THESE SENSING DEVICES CAN DETECT SUBTLE DIFFERENCES IN THE ENERGY MUCH MORE ACCURATELY THAN THE HUMAN EYE.  THIS PROCESS IS REPEATED FROM DIFFERENT ANGLES UNTIL SUFFICIENT INFORMATION IS ACQUIRED FOR THE COMPUTER TO RECONSTRUCT AN IMAGE.  THIS COMPOSITE TECHNIQUE IS WHAT ALLOWS THE PRODUCTION OF PICTURES DEPICTING "SLICES" OF BODY TISSUE RATHER THAN A GROSS "LUMP" OF BODY TISSUE SEEN ON A PLAIN RADIOGRAPH.

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING--MRI

MRI IS AN IMAGING TECHNIQUE WHICH USES MAGNETIC ENERGY INSTEAD OF LIGHT ENERGY [X-RAYS] TO PRODUCE PICTURES.  THE MRI IMAGES ARE OBTAINED BY PLACING THE PATIENT WITHIN A POWERFUL, HIGHLY UNIFORM STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD.  THE 1.5 TESLA FIELD [30,000 TIMES THE STRENGTH OF THE EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD] IS CREATED BY SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.  PROTONS (HYDROGEN NUCLEI) WITHIN THE PATIENT ALIGN LIKE SMALL MAGNETS IN THIS FIELD.  THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH THE HYDROGEN NUCLEI SPIN DEPENDS ON THE STRENGTH OF THE APPLIED MAGNETIC FIELD. 

IF A RADIO SIGNAL AT A FREQUENCY IDENTICAL TO THAT OF THE SPINNING NUCLEI IS APPLIED AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE MAIN MAGNETIC FIELD, ENERGY IS ADDED TO THE SYSTEM AND THE NUCLEI WILL RESONATE, THAT IS, SPIN COHERENTLY TOGETHER.  WHEN THE RADIO SIGNAL IS STOPPED, THE NUCLEI BEGIN TO REVERT TO THEIR ORIGINAL ALIGNMENT PARALLEL WITH THE MAIN MAGNETIC FIELD.  THIS IS CALLED DEPHASING.  IN SO DOING, THE NUCLEI EMIT RADIO SIGNALS, WHICH DECAY IN INTENSITY FROM A MAXIMUM VALUE TO ZERO.  THE EMITTED SIGNALS ARE CONVERTED TO IMAGES THAT THEREFORE REFLECT THE HYDROGEN DENSITY OF THE TISSUE AS WELL AS THE RATES OF DEPHASING.  IMAGES BASED ON DIFFERENT TISSUE CHARACTERISTICS CAN BE OBTAINED BY VARYING THE NUMBER AND THE SEQUENCE OF PULSED RADIO WAVES TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF DEPHASING [MAGNETIC RELAXATION] PROPERTIES OF THE TISSUES.  AS WITH CAT, THE MRI SIGNALS ARE FED INTO A COMPUTER AND AN IMAGE IS RECONSTRUCTED. 

MRI DIFFERS FROM CAT IN THAT IT DETECTS THE EMISSION OF ENERGY RATHER THAN THE TRANSMISSION OF [X-RAY] ENERGY.  THE CONCENTRATION AND MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CERTAIN ATOMS IN THE BODY ARE DETECTED.  MRI IS AN EMISSION TECHNIQUE, WHEREAS CAT IS A TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE. 

BECAUSE MANY PATHOLOGICAL PROCESSES CAUSE ALTERATION IN TISSUE WATER [WHICH IS HIGH IN HYDROGEN AND THEREFORE "VISIBLE" TO THE MAGNETIC FIELD], MRI MAY BE ABLE TO DETECT DISEASE STATES AT AN EARLIER STAGE THAN CAT.  HOWEVER, IT IS INSENSITIVE TO OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF BODY TISSUE, SUCH AS CALCIUM, WHICH CAN BE ASSESSED VERY WELL BY CAT.  HENCE THE TWO PROCEDURES ARE OFTEN COMPLIMENTARY.  MRI'S MAIN ADVANTAGE IS THAT IT GENERATES PICTURES MORE DETAILED THAN CAT WITHOUT EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION.  BUT, IT IS CONTRAINDICATED IN PATIENTS WITH PACEMAKERS OR CERTAIN SURGICAL CLIPS BECAUSE IT MAY CAUSE THESE STRUCTURES TO BE DISLODGED.

POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY--PET

POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY MEASURES THE TISSUE CONCENTRATION OF SYSTEMICALLY ADMINISTERED RADIOACTIVE TRACERS.  PET YIELDS NOT ONLY PICTURES BUT QUANTITATIVE MEASURES OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW, OXYGEN UPTAKE, AND GLUCOSE UTILIZATION USING MATHEMATICAL IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES SIMILAR TO THOSE USED IN CAT OR MRI.

THE ISOTOPES [C11, F18, N13, O15] ARE USED TO LABEL BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS WITHOUT DISRUPTING THE CHEMICAL OR BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES.  THIS TEST HAS THE ABILITY TO ANALYZE CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITHIN A GIVEN BODY TISSUE, AS OPPOSED TO CREATING A PICTURE OF TISSUE ARCHITECTURE [AS WITH OTHER IMAGING PROCEDURES], BECAUSE IT ANALYZES THE ENERGY PRODUCED BY A CHEMICAL AFTER IT HAS BEEN PROCESSED BY THE BODY.  FOR EXAMPLE, THIS TEST IS BEING USED TO ASSESS THE DIFFERENCES IN BRAIN METABOLISM THAT OCCURS WITH DISEASES SUCH AS ALZHEIMER'S.

ONE OF THE MAJOR DRAWBACKS IS THAT THE ISOTOPES ARE SHORT-LIVED, NECESSITATING THAT THEY BE MANUFACTURED ON SITE WITH A CYCLOTRON OR LINEAR ACCELERATOR [VERY EXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT].

SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY--SPECT

SPECT CAN BE CARRIED OUT USING A ROTATING GAMMA CAMERA.  IT EVOLVED FROM PET AND USES A COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ISOTOPE--IODINE 123--IN A BIOCHEMICAL COMPOUND [N-ISOPROPYL-123-I-p-ISOAMPHETAMINE].  THIS BIOCHEMICAL IS FAT SOLUBLE AND WILL CROSS THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.  THUS, ALLOWING IMAGING OF THE BRAIN.  SPECT IS USED TO DIAGNOSE DISEASE, SEIZURES, AND ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.

ULTRASONOGRAPHY

ULTRASOUND USES SOUND WAVE ENERGY TO PRODUCE AN IMAGE OF BODY TISSUE, MUCH THE SAME WAY THAT RADAR ENERGY IS USED.  THAT IS, A SOUND WAVE BEAM IS AIMED AT A BODY PART AND THE REFLECTED ENERGY IS ANALYZED TO PRODUCE A PICTURE.  THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY REFLECTED, THAT IS, THE AMPLITUDE OF THE RETURNING SOUND WAVE, DEPENDS ON THE ORIENTATION [AMOUNT OF TILT] OF THE REFLECTING SURFACE.  THE VARIATION IN TISSUE TEXTURE THEREFORE PRODUCES VARIATIONS IN THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY REFLECTED BACK, ENABLING A PICTURE TO BE CREATED BASED ON THESE DIFFERENCES. 

WHENEVER THERE IS A RELATIVE MOTION BETWEEN THE SOURCE OF A SOUND AND THE DETECTOR THERE IS A CHANGE IN FREQUENCY OF THE SOUND.  A SECOND PROCEDURE--DOPPLER ULTRASOUND--RELIES ON THIS FREQUENCY CHANGE.   IN ARTERIES THE FREQUENCY SHIFT DETECTED DUE TO THE MOVEMENT OF RED BLOOD CELLS.  WITH COLOR DOPPLER, FREQUENCY SHIFTS, AND HENCE FLOW VELOCITIES, ARE ASSIGNED DIFFERENT COLORS DEPENDING ON THEIR MAGNITUDE AND DIRECTION. 

ULTRASOUND CAN BE USED TO VISUALIZE A FETUS, A HEART [ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY]; CAN DISTINGUISH BETWEEN CANCER AND A CYST; AND CAN AID IN BRAIN SURGERY AND IN AMNIOCENTESIS.

NEUROLOGY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE:  VOL I, BRADLY et. al. 
Butterworth-Heinemann Pub., 1991